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Despite what you see in some diet books and TV programmes, healthy eating can be really straightforward.
A diet based on starchy foods such as potatoes, bread, rice and pasta; with plenty of fruit and vegetables; some protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and lentils; some milk and dairy foods; and not too much fat, salt or sugar, will give you all the nutrients you need.
When it comes to a healthy diet, balance is the key to getting it right. This means eating a wide variety of foods in the right proportions, and consuming the right amount of food and drink to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight.
Most adults in England are overweight or obese. That means many of us are eating more than we need, and should eat less. And it's not just food: some drinks can also be high in calories. Most adults need to eat and drink fewer calories in order to lose weight, even if they already eat a balanced diet.
Food groups in our diet
The eatwell plate shows that to have a healthy, balanced diet, people should try to eat:
- plenty of fruit and vegetables
- plenty of starchy foods, such as bread, rice, potatoes and pasta
- some meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein
- some milk and dairy foods
- just a small amount of food and drinks that are high in fat and/or sugar
Try to choose a variety of different foods from the four main food groups.
Most people in the UK eat and drink too many calories, too much fat, sugar and salt, and not enough fruit, vegetables, oily fish and fibre. Read our page on understanding calories.
It's important to have some fat in your diet, but you don't need to eat any foods from the "foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar" group as part of a healthy diet.
Fruit and vegetables: are you getting your 5 a day?
Fruit and vegetables are a vital source of vitamins and minerals. It's advised that we eat at least five portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables each day.
There's evidence that people who eat at least five portions a day have a lower risk of heart disease, stroke and some cancers.
What's more, eating five portions is not as hard as it sounds. Just one apple, banana, pear or similar-sized fruit is one portion. A slice of pineapple or melon is one portion. Three heaped tablespoons of vegetables is another portion.
Having a sliced banana with your morning cereal is a quick way to get one portion. Swap your mid-morning biscuit for a tangerine, and add a side salad to your lunch. Have a portion of vegetables with dinner, and snack on dried fruit in the evening to reach your five a day.
Read our 5 A DAY page for more tips on how to get your five portions of fruit and veg.
Starchy foods in your diet
Starchy foods should make up around one third of everything we eat. This means we should base our meals on these foods.
Potatoes are an excellent choice and a great source of fibre. Leave the skins on where possible to keep in more of the fibre and vitamins. For example, when having boiled potatoes or a jacket potato, eat the skin too.
Try to choose wholegrain or wholemeal varieties of starchy foods, such as brown rice, wholewheat pasta and brown, wholemeal or higher fibre white bread. They contain more fibre (often referred to as "roughage"), and usually more vitamins and minerals than white varieties.
Learn more from our starchy foods page.
Meat, fish, eggs and beans: all good sources of protein
These foods are all good sources of protein, which is essential for the body to grow and repair itself. They are also good sources of a range of vitamins and minerals.
Meat is a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals, including iron, zinc and B vitamins. It is also one of the main sources of vitamin B12. Try to eat lean cuts of meat and skinless poultry whenever possible to cut down on fat. Always cook meat thoroughly. Learn more by reading our page on meat.
Fish is another important source of protein, and contains many vitamins and minerals. Oily fish is particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Aim for at least two portions of fish a week, including one portion of oily fish. You can choose from fresh, frozen or canned, but remember that canned and smoked fish can often be high in salt.
Eggs and pulses (including beans, nuts and seeds) are also great sources of protein. Nuts are high in fibre and a good alternative to snacks high in saturated fat, but they do still contain high levels of fat, so eat them in moderation. Learn more from our pages on eggs and pulses and beans.
Milk and dairy foods: avoid full fat varieties
Milk and dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are good sources of protein. They also contain calcium, which helps keep your bones healthy.
To enjoy the health benefits of dairy without eating too much fat, use semi-skimmed, 1% fat or skimmed milk, as well as lower-fat hard cheeses or cottage cheese, and lower-fat yoghurt.
Learn more by reading our page on milk and dairy foods.
Eat less fat and sugar
Most people in the UK eat too much fat and sugar.
Fats and sugar are both sources of energy for the body, but when we eat too much of them we consume more energy than we burn, and this can mean that we put on weight. This can lead to obesity, which increases our risk of type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, heart disease and stroke.
But did you know that there are different types of fat?
Saturated fat is found in foods such as cheese, sausages, butter, cakes, biscuits and pies. Most people in the UK eat too much saturated fat, which can raise our cholesterol, putting us at increased risk of heart disease.
Unsaturated fats, on the other hand, can help to lower cholesterol and provide us with the essential fatty acids needed to help us stay healthy. Oily fish, nuts and seeds, avocados, olive oils and vegetable oils are sources of unsaturated fat.
Try to cut down on foods that are high in saturated fat and have smaller amounts of foods that are rich in unsaturated fat instead. For a healthy choice, use just a small amount of vegetable oil or reduced fat spread instead of butter, lard or ghee. When having meat, choose lean cuts and cut off any visible fat. Read on to find out how to eat less saturated fat.
For more information on fat and how to reduce the amount we consume in our diets, read fat: the facts.
Sugar occurs naturally in foods such as fruit and milk, but we don't need to cut down on these types of foods. Sugar is also added to lots of foods and drinks such as sugary fizzy drinks, cakes, biscuits, chocolate, pastries, ice cream and jam. It's also contained in some ready-made savoury foods such as pasta sauces and baked beans.
Most of us need to cut down on foods high in added sugars. Instead of a fizzy drink, for example, try sparkling water. Have a currant bun as a snack instead of a pastry. Learn more from our page on sugars.
Need to lose weight?
Use the panel below to download the NHS weight loss guide, our popular free 12-week diet and exercise plan.
The plan, which has been downloaded more than 2 million times, is designed to help you lose weight safely – and keep it off.
It doesn't have to cost a lot to get your 5 A DAY. Here are some cheaper ways to stock up on fruit and veg.
Read our top tips on how to include more fruit and vegetables in your diet while still saving money.
10 top tips to get 5 A DAY on a budget
- Buy fruit and vegetables loose rather than pre-packaged. Loose fruit and veg can be as little as half the price.
- Fruit and vegetables are usually cheaper if they're in season. You can find out what is in season at the Love British Food website's page on seasons.
- Fruit and vegetables are often cheaper at your local street or farmers' market. You can find your nearest one in this directory of farmers' markets.
- Replace your morning or afternoon snack with a piece of fruit. A banana or an apple costs around 20p at the supermarket, about half the price of most chocolate bars or packets of crisps. The savings add up and so do the health benefits.
- Don't throw away vegetables that are about to go out of date. Use them in stews, soups and casseroles, which you can freeze and eat another time.
- Look for supermarket deals on fruit and vegetables, such as buy one get one free offers.
- Look for good deals on frozen and dried fruit and veg, such as frozen peas and dried pulses and beans. They are often cheaper than fresh varieties.
- Swap ready meals for homemade alternatives. Vegetables in dishes such as stews, bakes, casseroles and curries count towards your 5 A DAY, and cooking these dishes yourself is often cheaper than buying them ready-made.
- Stock up on canned fruit and vegetables. They count towards your 5 A DAY and won't go off, so you can buy them in bulk. Buy canned fruit and veg, in water or fruit juice, without added salt or sugar. Supermarket own-brand varieties are usually the cheapest.
- Cook in bulk and freeze portions to eat another time. For more meal ideas, go to 5 A DAY recipes.
Got a question about 5 A DAY?
Around 40% of people have at least one digestive symptom at any one time, according to Dr Anton Emmanuel, consultant gastroenterologist at University College Hospital in London.
The most common are:
"These are the big four and they’re so common that we take them for granted," said Dr Emmanuel.
"Most digestive problems are to do with lifestyle, the foods we’ve eaten, or stress. Which means that taking steps to change your lifestyle can help, and often prevent, many of these problems," he said. "And there’s a wide choice of pharmacy remedies for heartburn, indigestion and similar problems that are very good for the short-term relief of symptoms."
Some medicines can upset your tummy
Certain medicines that your doctor may have prescribed for you for other health conditions can lead to side effects that may upset your tummy and cause indigestion, diarrhoea or constipation.
Aspirin and medicines used to treat arthritis, known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), should be avoided if you have an ulcer or you get indigestion. Consult your doctor if you rely on these medicines and are also prone to indigestion or ulcers. Paracetamol is a useful alternative.
Certain tranquillisers, painkillers, iron tablets and cough medicines can cause constipation and some people get diarrhoea while taking antibiotics or blood pressure pills.
Always inform your doctor if your prescribed medicines are upsetting your tummy.
Red flag digestive symptoms
Dr Emmanuel warned that although digestive symptoms are usually harmless and often settle down by themselves, they can sometimes persist and be a signal of serious illness.
"People tend to underestimate how serious their symptoms are and that’s frustrating for doctors as we often see patients with gastrointestinal conditions later than we’d like, sometimes only when they’ve had their symptoms for years. If we could see them earlier we could, with treatment, improve their quality of life immensely," he said.
He advised anyone who has taken a pharmacy remedy for a digestive problem for two weeks with no improvement to consult their GP.
He also highlighted five "hardcore" symptoms, which mean you should see a doctor without delay. These symptoms may be an alarm warning of a serious digestive illness: