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Despite what you see in some diet books and TV programmes, healthy eating can be really straightforward.
A diet based on starchy foods such as potatoes, rice and pasta; with plenty of fruit and vegetables; some protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and lentils; some milk and dairy foods; and not too much fat, salt or sugar, will give you all the nutrients you need.
When it comes to a healthy diet, balance is the key to getting it right. This means eating a wide variety of foods in the right proportions, and consuming the right amount of food and drink to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight.
Most adults in England are either overweight or obese. That means many of us are eating more than we need, and should eat less. And it's not just food: some drinks can also be high in calories. Most adults need to eat and drink fewer calories in order to lose weight, even if they already eat a balanced diet.
All the food we eat can be divided into five groups. Try to choose a variety of different foods from the first four groups.
- Fruit and vegetables.
- Starchy foods, such as bread, rice, potatoes and pasta. Choose wholegrain varieties whenever you can, or eat potatoes with their skin on for more fibre.
- Meat, fish, eggs and beans.
- Milk and dairy foods.
- Foods containing fat and sugar.
Most people in the UK eat and drink too many calories, and too much fat, sugar and salt, and not enough fruit, vegetables and fibre. It's important to have some fat in the diet, but you don't need to eat any foods from the 'Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' group as part of a healthy diet.
1. Fruit and vegetables
Fruit and vegetables are a vital source of vitamins and minerals. It's advised that we eat five portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables a day.
There's evidence that people who eat at least five portions a day are at lower risk of heart disease, stroke and some cancers.
What's more, eating five portions is not as hard as it might sound. Just one apple, banana, pear or similar-sized fruit is one portion. A slice of pineapple or melon is one portion. Three heaped tablespoons of vegetables is another portion.
Having a sliced banana with your morning cereal is a quick way to get one portion. Swap your mid-morning biscuit for a tangerine, and add a side salad to your lunch. Add a portion of vegetables to dinner, and snack on dried fruit in the evening to reach your five a day.
See 5 A DAY for more tips to help you get your five portions of fruit and veg.
2. Starchy foods
Starchy foods should make up around one third of everything we eat. This means we should base our meals on these foods.
Potatoes are an excellent choice of a starchy food and a good source of fibre. Leave the skins on where possible to keep in more of the fibre and vitamins. For example, when having boiled potatoes or have a jacket potato, eat the skin too.
Try to choose wholegrain or wholemeal varieties of starchy foods, such as brown rice, wholewheat pasta and brown wholemeal bread. They contain more fibre (often referred to as 'roughage'), and usually more vitamins and minerals than white varieties.
Learn more in Starchy foods.
3. Meat, fish, eggs and beans
These foods are all good sources of protein, which is essential for growth and repair of the body. They are also good sources of a range of vitamins and minerals.
Meat is a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals such as iron, zinc and B vitamins. It is also one of the main sources of vitamin B12. Try to eat lean cuts of meat and skinless poultry whenever possible to cut down on fat. Always cook meat thoroughly. Learn more in our section on Meat.
Fish is another important source of protein, and contains many vitamins and minerals. Oily fish is particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Aim for at least two portions of fish a week, including one portion of oily fish. You can choose from fresh, frozen or canned, but canned and smoked fish can be high in salt.
Eggs and pulses (including beans, nuts and seeds) are also great sources of protein. Nuts are high in fibre and a good alternative to snacks high in saturated fat, but they do still contain high levels of fat, so eat them in moderation. Learn more in Eggs and Pulses and beans.
4. Milk and dairy foods
Milk and dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are good sources of protein. They also contain calcium, which helps to keep your bones healthy.
To enjoy the health benefits of dairy without eating too much fat, use semi-skimmed milk, skimmed milk or 1% fat milks, lower-fat hard cheeses or cottage cheese, and lower-fat yoghurt.
Learn more in Milk and dairy foods.
5. Fat and sugar
Most people in the UK eat too much fat and too much sugar.
Fats and sugar are both sources of energy for the body, but when we eat too much of them we consume more energy than we burn, and this can mean that we put on weight. This can lead to obesity, which increases our risk of type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, heart disease and stroke.
But did you know that there are different types of fat?
Saturated fat is found in foods such as cheese, sausages, butter, cakes, biscuits and pies. It can raise your blood cholesterol level and increase your risk of heart disease. Most people in the UK eat too much saturated fat, which puts us at risk of health problems.
Unsaturated fats, on the other hand, can help to lower cholesterol and provide us with the essential fatty acids needed to help us stay healthy. Oily fish, nuts and seeds, avocados, olive oils and vegetable oils are sources of unsaturated fat.
Try to cut down on foods that are high in saturated fat and have smaller amounts of foods that are rich in unsaturated fat instead. For a healthy choice, use just a small amount of vegetable oil or reduced fat spread instead of butter, lard or ghee. When having meat, choose lean cuts and cut off any visible fat. Learn more in Eat less saturated fat.
For more information on fat and how to reduce it in our diets, see Fat: the facts.
Sugar occurs naturally in foods such as fruit and milk, but we don't need to cut down on these types of sugar. Sugar is also added to lots of foods and drinks such as sugary fizzy drinks, cakes, biscuits, chocolate, pastries, ice cream and jam. It's also contained in some ready-made savoury foods such as pasta sauces and baked beans.
Most of us need to cut down on foods with added sugar. Instead of a fizzy drink, for example, try sparkling water. Have a currant bun as a snack instead of a pastry. Learn more in Sugars.
Find out more about healthy eating in our Food and diet section.
Eating plenty of fruit and vegetables doesn’t have to be expensive. There are lots of affordable ways to get your 5 A DAY.
Here's how to eat more fruit and vegetables while still saving money.
10 top tips to get 5 A DAY on a budget
- Buy fruit and vegetables loose rather than pre-packaged. Loose fruit and veg can be as little as half the price.
- Look for supermarket deals on fruit and vegetables, such as buy one get one free offers.
- Fruit and vegetables are usually cheaper if they're in season. You can find out what is in season at the Love British Food website's page on seasons.
- Fruit and vegetables are often cheaper at your local street or farmers' market. You can find your nearest one in this directory of farmers' markets.
- Replace your morning or afternoon snack with a piece of fruit. A banana or an apple costs around 20p at the supermarket, about half the price of most chocolate bars or packets of crisps. The savings add up and so do the health benefits.
- Don’t throw away vegetables that are about to go out of date. Use them in stews, soups and casseroles, which you can freeze and eat another time.
- Stock up on canned fruit and vegetables. They count towards your 5 A DAY and won’t go off, so you can buy them in bulk. Buy those canned without added salt or sugar. Supermarket own-brand varieties are usually the cheapest.
- Look for good deals on frozen and dried fruit and veg, such as frozen peas and dried pulses and beans. They are often cheaper than fresh varieties.
- Swap ready meals for homemade alternatives. Vegetables in dishes such as stews, bakes, casseroles and curries count towards your 5 A DAY, and cooking these dishes yourself is cheaper than buying them ready-made.
- Cook in bulk and freeze portions to eat another time. For more meal ideas, go to 5 A DAY recipes.
If you have an enquiry about 5 A DAY, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Around 40% of people have at least one digestive symptom at any one time, according to Dr Anton Emmanuel, consultant gastroenterologist at University College Hospital in London.
The most common are:
"These are the big four and they’re so common that we take them for granted," said Dr Emmanuel.
"Most digestive problems are to do with lifestyle, the foods we’ve eaten, or stress. Which means that taking steps to change your lifestyle can help, and often prevent, many of these problems," he said. "And there’s a wide choice of pharmacy remedies for heartburn, indigestion and similar problems that are very good for the short-term relief of symptoms."
Watch your medicines
Certain medicines that your doctor may have prescribed for you for other health conditions can lead to side effects that may upset your tummy and cause indigestion, diarrhoea or constipation.
Aspirin and medicines used to treat arthritis, known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), should be avoided if you have an ulcer or you get indigestion. Consult your doctor if you rely on these medicines and are also prone to indigestion or ulcers. Paracetamol is a useful alternative.
Certain tranquillisers, painkillers, iron tablets and cough medicines can cause constipation and some people get diarrhoea while taking antibiotics or blood pressure pills.
Always inform your doctor if your prescribed medicines are upsetting your tummy.
Red flag symptoms
Dr Emmanuel warned that although digestive symptoms are usually harmless and often settle down by themselves, they can sometimes persist and be a signal of serious illness.
"People tend to underestimate how serious their symptoms are and that’s frustrating for doctors as we often see patients with gastrointestinal conditions later than we’d like, sometimes only when they’ve had their symptoms for years. If we could see them earlier we could, with treatment, improve their quality of life immensely," he said.
He advised anyone who has taken a pharmacy remedy for a digestive problem for two weeks with no improvement to consult their GP.
He also highlighted five 'hardcore' symptoms, which mean you should see a doctor without delay. These symptoms may be an alarm warning of a serious digestive illness: